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“super-organisms” that play with diabetes

Approximately 500 million humans suffer from diabetes, a metabolic disease resulting in a disruption of blood sugar control with harmful consequences on health. And yet, evolution has produced “super-organisms” which exhibit a blood sugar (Glucose (from the Greek glukus = sweet and haima = blood) refers to the concentration of glucose…) diabetic and a long life expectancy (Life expectancy is a statistical data. It is supposed to allow to know the duration…). Among these, a small passerine native toAustralia (Australia (officially the Commonwealth of Australia) is a country of…) whose scientists have analyzed hemoglobin to discover a surprising resistance to glucose (Glucose is an aldohexose, the main representative of oses (sugars). By convention, it is…) and an unexpected mixed (A mixture is an association of two or more solid, liquid or gaseous substances…) structure of three isoforms. The results were published in Experimental Gerontology.

To ensure optimum functioning, living organisms attempt to maintain a stable level of many biological parameters at all times, including the blood glucose level, which is a source ofenergy (In common sense, energy designates everything that allows you to do work, make energy, etc.) key (In a literal sense, the key or key (both spellings are correct) is a removable device…) for cells. Not enough glucose and the risk is great for the body to suffer serious immediate damage, too much glucose and the long-term effects for the health (Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and is not…) can lead to a reduction in longevity (The longevity of a living being is the length of life for which it is…). Chronic high blood sugar leads to chemical reactions between glucose and proteins, called glycations, which accelerate the aging (The notion of aging describes one or more diminishing functional changes…) cells.

In ecology, several studies have also shown that glucose levels could explain differences in longevity between species. Understanding in more detail the mechanisms that explain variations in blood glucose and how they may be associated with different longevities is a question that interests ecology. everything (The whole understood as the whole of what exists is often interpreted as the world or…) as much as health. L’exploration (Exploration is searching with the intention of discovering something unknown.) of the biodiversity (Biodiversity is the natural diversity of living organisms. It is appreciated…)and in particular birds, has revealed paradoxical situations and illustrates how evolution has been able to respond to the challenges posed by the entanglement of environmental challenges and physiological constraints on the functioning of organisms.

Birds have some of the highest blood sugar levels in the world animal (An animal (from the Latin animus, spirit, or vital principle) is, according to the classical classification, a…)far beyond the values โ€‹โ€‹of theman (A man is an adult male individual of the species called Modern Man (Homo…) diabetic. And yet, their longevity is 2 to 3 times greater than that of mammals of similar size. This paradox (A paradox is a proposition which contains or appears to contain a logical contradiction, or a…) has fueled many studies in biology (Biology, commonly called “bio”, is the science of life….) evolution of aging and discover the mechanism that allows them to resist the harmful effects of glucose throughout their life (Life is the name given ๐Ÿ™‚ is thus of great importance on the fundamental level (evolution) and carrier (A carrier is a sinusoidal signal of constant frequency and amplitude. It is…) potential new therapeutic approaches.

L’Institute (An institute is a permanent organization created for a certain purpose. It is…) Multidisciplinary Hubert Curien (Hubert Curien (October 30, 1924, Cornimont – February 6, 2005, Loury) is a crystallographer…) (IPHC – CNRS (The National Center for Scientific Research, better known by its acronym CNRS, is the largest…) / University (A university is an institution of higher education whose objective is the…) Strasbourg) combines the work of biologists and chemists to develop an innovative approach in evolutionary biology, based on proteomic analysis (analysis of the composition and protein structure (Protein structure is amino acid composition and conformation…)here sanguine) of a small passerine kept in captivity within the laboratory, the diamond (Diamond is a mineral composed of carbon (just like graphite and…) Mandarin (Taeniopigya guttata). By focusing on hemoglobin, one of the preferred protein targets of glycation reactions, they determined the molecular profile of individuals of known age and proceeded to an exposure in vitro hemoglobin to the presence of glucose in the medium.

The results confirm that the zebra finch has high blood glucose, but an undetectable proportion of glycated hemoglobin at spectrometer (A spectrometer is a measuring device for breaking down a quantity…) of mass (The term mass is used to designate two quantities attached to one…) (Fig 1, middle panel). In addition, its hemoglobin proves to be particularly resistant to the experience of forced glycation. in vitro, whereas human hemoglobin reacts strongly to the presence of glucose (Fig 1, left panel). Finally, an analysis of the structure of these two hemoglobins reveals that if the human form has a structure in four associated chains (tetramer), that of the Mandarin is a mixture of 3 tetrameric forms associating surprisingly more varied chains (Fig 1, panel of right).

These results could suggest a link between structure and resistance to glycation of the protein chains of mandarin hemoglobin. They also suggest that the hemoglobin of birds has evolved in a divergent way compared to that of mammals, opening a new avenue of study to better understand how these very particular organisms achieve remarkable longevities despite a situation (In geography, the situation is a spatial concept allowing the relative location of a…) physiological which would be pathological in humans.

CNRS laboratory involved:
Multidisciplinary Hubert Curien Institute (IPHC – CNRS / University of Strasbourg)

Reference:
Brun, C., Hernandez-Alba, O., Hovasse, A., Criscuolo, F., Schaeffer-Reiss, C., & Bertile, F. (2022). Resistance to glycation in the zebra finch: Mass spectrometry-based analysis and its perspectives for evolutionary studies of aging. Experimental Gerontology111811.

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